The EU air transport law, which was not applicable at Gibraltar Airport before the withdrawal agreement came into force, applies to Gibraltar Airport only from the date set by the Joint Committee. The Joint Committee takes the decision on this matter after the United Kingdom and Spain have indicated that they have reached a satisfactory agreement on the use of Gibraltar Airport. Some EU rules on food and agriculture also apply to NI during the backstop period. Existing controls on animals and animal products moving from the UK to NI need to be strengthened. The political statement states that provisions to address health and plant protection barriers to trade barriers should be introduced “on the basis of WTO agreements and going beyond.” European Parliament and Council Regulation 2016/1076 on 8 June 2016 on the application of the regime for products originating in certain Member States in the Group of African States, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) agreements establishing or establishing Economic Partnership Agreements (36), that the United Kingdom and the EU must take all necessary steps to begin formal negotiations on one or more agreements on their future relations as soon as possible at the effective date of this agreement, in order to ensure that, as far as possible, these agreements apply from the end of the transition period (-1) The Union informs the other parties to these agreements that the United Kingdom should be considered a Member State during the transitional period for the purposes of these agreements. If it is not possible to reach agreement on the inclusion of the newly adopted act in the relevant annex of this protocol, consider any other possibility of maintaining the proper functioning of this protocol and taking all necessary decisions to do so. Part 6 relates to the institutional provisions underlying the agreement and how to resolve VA disputes. The main changes to Part 6 of the March 2018 draft relate to disputes related to the agreement itself, which the Commission had originally proposed, should be resolved by the ECJ if they could not be resolved in the Joint Committee. Instead, the November draft proposes, in Article 170, that all disputes that are not settled in the Joint Committee be referred to an independent arbitration tribunal which will give a binding decision on the dispute. However, where litigation requires the interpretation of terms or provisions of EU law, Article 174 obliges the Tribunal to refer them to the ECJ in order to interpret in a binding manner those terms or provisions which the Tribunal must then apply. (2) In the United Kingdom and in the Member States in situations where the United Kingdom is involved, the recognition and enforcement of decisions, acts, judicial acts, judicial transactions and agreements are governed by the following acts or provisions: the receipt of the agreement in the House of Commons went from cold to hostile and the vote was delayed by more than a month. Prime Minister May has received a motion of no confidence within her own party, but the EU has refused to accept further changes. Immediately after the announcement of a revised withdrawal agreement on October 17, 2019, Labour, the Liberal Democrats and the DUP said they could not support the new agreement.

[30] 1. Without prejudice to Article 127, paragraph 2, the United Kingdom is bound, during the transitional period, by the obligations arising from the international agreements concluded by the Union, of the Member States acting on its behalf or of the Union and its Member States acting jointly, in accordance with Article 2, point a) iv).